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The first edition of the novel was published in , and was written by Anonymous. The book was published in multiple languages including English, consists of pages and is available in Paperback format.
The main characters of this classics, fiction story are ,. The book has been awarded with , and many others. For you. Join for free.
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Try again! Oops, something went wrong while loading your game. Help Activate Flash to enjoy this game. Another early foreshadowing technique is formal patterning , "the organization of the events, actions and gestures which constitute a narrative and give shape to a story; when done well, formal patterning allows the audience the pleasure of discerning and anticipating the structure of the plot as it unfolds.
Several tales in the One Thousand and One Nights use the self-fulfilling prophecy , as a special form of literary prolepsis, to foreshadow what is going to happen.
This literary device dates back to the story of Krishna in ancient Sanskrit literature , and Oedipus or the death of Heracles in the plays of Sophocles.
A variation of this device is the self-fulfilling dream, which can be found in Arabic literature or the dreams of Joseph and his conflicts with his brothers, in the Hebrew Bible.
A notable example is "The Ruined Man who Became Rich Again through a Dream", in which a man is told in his dream to leave his native city of Baghdad and travel to Cairo , where he will discover the whereabouts of some hidden treasure.
The man travels there and experiences misfortune, ending up in jail, where he tells his dream to a police officer. The officer mocks the idea of foreboding dreams and tells the protagonist that he himself had a dream about a house with a courtyard and fountain in Baghdad where treasure is buried under the fountain.
The man recognizes the place as his own house and, after he is released from jail, he returns home and digs up the treasure.
In other words, the foreboding dream not only predicted the future, but the dream was the cause of its prediction coming true. Ja'afar, disturbed and upset flees Baghdad and plunges into a series of adventures in Damascus , involving Attaf and the woman whom Attaf eventually marries.
In other words, it was Harun's reading of the book that provoked the adventures described in the book to take place. This is an early example of reverse causation.
In the 12th century, this tale was translated into Latin by Petrus Alphonsi and included in his Disciplina Clericalis ,  alongside the " Sindibad " story cycle.
Leitwortstil is "the purposeful repetition of words" in a given literary piece that "usually expresses a motif or theme important to the given story.
The storytellers of the tales relied on this technique "to shape the constituent members of their story cycles into a coherent whole.
Another technique used in the One Thousand and One Nights is thematic patterning , which is:. In a skillfully crafted tale, thematic patterning may be arranged so as to emphasize the unifying argument or salient idea which disparate events and disparate frames have in common.
Several different variants of the " Cinderella " story, which has its origins in the Egyptian story of Rhodopis , appear in the One Thousand and One Nights , including "The Second Shaykh's Story", "The Eldest Lady's Tale" and "Abdallah ibn Fadil and His Brothers", all dealing with the theme of a younger sibling harassed by two jealous elders.
In some of these, the siblings are female, while in others they are male. One of the tales, "Judar and His Brethren", departs from the happy endings of previous variants and reworks the plot to give it a tragic ending instead, with the younger brother being poisoned by his elder brothers.
The Nights contain many examples of sexual humour. Some of this borders on satire , as in the tale called "Ali with the Large Member" which pokes fun at obsession with penis size.
The literary device of the unreliable narrator was used in several fictional medieval Arabic tales of the One Thousand and One Nights. Seven viziers attempt to save his life by narrating seven stories to prove the unreliability of women, and the courtesan responds by narrating a story to prove the unreliability of viziers.
An example of the murder mystery  and suspense thriller genres in the collection, with multiple plot twists  and detective fiction elements  was " The Three Apples ", also known as Hikayat al-sabiyya 'l-maqtula 'The Tale of the Murdered Young Woman'.
In this tale, Harun al-Rashid comes to possess a chest, which, when opened, contains the body of a young woman. Harun gives his vizier, Ja'far , three days to find the culprit or be executed.
At the end of three days, when Ja'far is about to be executed for his failure, two men come forward, both claiming to be the murderer.
As they tell their story it transpires that, although the younger of them, the woman's husband, was responsible for her death, some of the blame attaches to a slave, who had taken one of the apples mentioned in the title and caused the woman's murder.
Harun then gives Ja'far three more days to find the guilty slave. When he yet again fails to find the culprit, and bids his family goodbye before his execution, he discovers by chance his daughter has the apple, which she obtained from Ja'far's own slave, Rayhan.
Thus the mystery is solved. Another Nights tale with crime fiction elements was "The Hunchback's Tale" story cycle which, unlike "The Three Apples", was more of a suspenseful comedy and courtroom drama rather than a murder mystery or detective fiction.
The story is set in a fictional China and begins with a hunchback, the emperor's favourite comedian , being invited to dinner by a tailor couple.
The hunchback accidentally chokes on his food from laughing too hard and the couple, fearful that the emperor will be furious, take his body to a Jewish doctor 's clinic and leave him there.
This leads to the next tale in the cycle, the "Tale of the Jewish Doctor", where the doctor accidentally trips over the hunchback's body, falls down the stairs with him, and finds him dead, leading him to believe that the fall had killed him.
The doctor then dumps his body down a chimney, and this leads to yet another tale in the cycle, which continues with twelve tales in total, leading to all the people involved in this incident finding themselves in a courtroom , all making different claims over how the hunchback had died.
Haunting is used as a plot device in gothic fiction and horror fiction , as well as modern paranormal fiction.
Legends about haunted houses have long appeared in literature. Horror fiction elements are also found in "The City of Brass" tale, which revolves around a ghost town.
The horrific nature of Scheherazade 's situation is magnified in Stephen King 's Misery , in which the protagonist is forced to write a novel to keep his captor from torturing and killing him.
The influence of the Nights on modern horror fiction is certainly discernible in the work of H.
As a child, he was fascinated by the adventures recounted in the book, and he attributes some of his creations to his love of the Nights. Several stories within the One Thousand and One Nights feature early science fiction elements.
One example is "The Adventures of Bulukiya", where the protagonist Bulukiya's quest for the herb of immortality leads him to explore the seas, journey to Paradise and to Hell , and travel across the cosmos to different worlds much larger than his own world, anticipating elements of galactic science fiction;  along the way, he encounters societies of jinn ,  mermaids , talking serpents , talking trees, and other forms of life.
In another Nights tale, "Abdullah the Fisherman and Abdullah the Merman", the protagonist Abdullah the Fisherman gains the ability to breathe underwater and discovers an underwater society that is portrayed as an inverted reflection of society on land, in that the underwater society follows a form of primitive communism where concepts like money and clothing do not exist.
Other Arabian Nights tales also depict Amazon societies dominated by women, lost ancient technologies, advanced ancient civilizations that went astray, and catastrophes which overwhelmed them.
It is often deployed by stories' narrators to provide detailed descriptions, usually of the beauty of characters. Characters also occasionally quote or speak in verse in certain settings.
The uses include but are not limited to:. In a typical example, expressing feelings of happiness to oneself from Night , Prince Qamar Al-Zaman, standing outside the castle, wants to inform Queen Bodour of his arrival.
When she opens it and sees the ring, joy conquers her, and out of happiness she chants this poem: . Long, long have I bewailed the sev'rance of our loves, With tears that from my lids streamed down like burning rain And vowed that, if the days deign reunite us two, My lips should never speak of severance again: Joy hath o'erwhelmed me so that, for the very stress Of that which gladdens me to weeping I am fain.
Tears are become to you a habit, O my eyes, So that ye weep as well for gladness as for pain. The influence of the versions of The Nights on world literature is immense.
Writers as diverse as Henry Fielding to Naguib Mahfouz have alluded to the collection by name in their own works. Yeats , H. Lovecraft , Marcel Proust , A.
Byatt and Angela Carter. Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin , Sinbad and Ali Baba.
Part of its popularity may have sprung from improved standards of historical and geographical knowledge.
The marvelous beings and events typical of fairy tales seem less incredible if they are set further "long ago" or farther "far away"; this process culminates in the fantasy world having little connection, if any, to actual times and places.
Several elements from Arabian mythology are now common in modern fantasy , such as genies , bahamuts , magic carpets , magic lamps, etc.
When L. Frank Baum proposed writing a modern fairy tale that banished stereotypical elements, he included the genie as well as the dwarf and the fairy as stereotypes to go.
In , the International Astronomical Union IAU began naming features on Saturn 's moon Enceladus after characters and places in Burton 's translation  because "its surface is so strange and mysterious that it was given the Arabian Nights as a name bank, linking fantasy landscape with a literary fantasy.
There is little evidence that the Nights was particularly treasured in the Arab world. It is rarely mentioned in lists of popular literature and few preth-century manuscripts of the collection exist.
According to Robert Irwin, "Even today, with the exception of certain writers and academics, the Nights is regarded with disdain in the Arabic world.
Its stories are regularly denounced as vulgar, improbable, childish and, above all, badly written. Idries Shah finds the Abjad numerical equivalent of the Arabic title, alf layla wa layla , in the Arabic phrase umm el quissa , meaning "mother of records.
On a more popular level, film and TV adaptations based on stories like Sinbad and Aladdin enjoyed long lasting popularity in Arabic speaking countries.
Although the first known translation into a European language only appeared in , it is possible that the Nights began exerting its influence on Western culture much earlier.
Knowledge of the work, direct or indirect, apparently spread beyond Spain. The modern fame of the Nights derives from the first known European translation by Antoine Galland , which appeared in According to Robert Irwin , Galland "played so large a part in discovering the tales, in popularizing them in Europe and in shaping what would come to be regarded as the canonical collection that, at some risk of hyperbole and paradox, he has been called the real author of the Nights.
This fashion began with the publication of Madame d'Aulnoy 's Histoire d'Hypolite in D'Aulnoy's book has a remarkably similar structure to the Nights , with the tales told by a female narrator.
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